According to Black's Law Dictionary, Chancery is "Proceeding according to the forms of principles of equity." Virginia is fortunate to have online through the Library of Virginia's website, chancery court records back to the 1700s. Because chancery courts were deciding issues not necessarily to the letter of the law, but on equity and fairness, those court cases include estates, land disputes, divorce proceedings and business partnership issues.
These records can hold a goldmine of information - for those who have Virginia ancestors. The Library of Virginia website is not the easiest to navigate. A hint is to use the Search Box (upper right on home page) for the kind of record you are searching. You can also utilize the Virginia Memory link. If you want to go right to the Chancery Records database, go to http://www.la.virginia.gov/chancery/ Put a name in the Surname Box. Then filter by county.